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Circuit board assembly
Circuit board assembly
We are fortunate to live in an age where electronic devices are everywhere. However, these electronic devices come to us because the components on the circuit board are amazing, and we often wonder what makes electronic devices work, achieve such great success and how to achieve success. Electronic devices are an amazing thing, you can never see anything happening inside them, but you can witness what they can do.. In this article, we’ll discuss the wonders of PCBS and how they can be implemented from the components of a PCB.
1. The capacitor
After resistors, capacitors are probably the most common component on circuit boards, and are the preferred choice for PCB enthusiasts. But we use fewer capacitors than resistors. The basic function of a capacitor is to store electric charges in it. A capacitor consists of two metal plates with a dielectric between them that stores opposite charges and helps keep them apart. In this way, current begins to flow through the circuit.
Capacitors are classified in a variety of ways. However, we mainly classify capacitors according to their dielectric materials. This is because dielectric materials are responsible for giving the capacitor key properties; The denser the dielectric, the more charge the capacitor can store on its plate; That’s why we tend to use high quality materials to make capacitors in order to get higher capacitance.. A typical capacitor has two wires sticking out of a metal plate.. We use these wires to integrate capacitors into the circuit.
We use resistors regularly in most PCB projects, and most of us are familiar with their functions; Resistors are one of the most commonly using components on circuit boards, and they are very popular and fairly easy to use. The flow of current.. Resistors therefore help to dissipate electrical energy in the form of heat. There are several types and different classifications of resistors, and they are often made of different materials because we use different materials for different purposes.
A different form of resistor is the way wires are led out. The most common type in this regard is the axial resistor. Electronics enthusiasts, beginners, and amateurs often prefer to use axial resistors because they are easy to integrate into any circuit. The rings around each resistor are a color code that indicates the resistance value of that particular resistor. The rings also tell us about the possible tolerances of the resistor.
3. The potentiometer
A potentiometer is basically an advanced form of a simple resistor. Simple resistors have fixed resistance values.. However, the resistance value of the potentiometer can change as required. There are many types of potentiometers, but the most common are linear and rotary. You can change the resistance of a linear potentiometer by dragging a linear slider. On the rotary potentiometer, you can turn the knob to change the resistance. The resistance changes as the slider moves over the base resistance of the semicircle.
We use rotary potentiometers a lot in everyday applications. One of the most common uses is using them in circular volume controllers in music players and similar audio devices. They work by controlling the current flow to the amplifier. When designing complex devices, potentiometers require fine-tuning to change their performance.
4. The inductor
The inductor is one of the three passive linear components of the circuit board. The other two are capacitors and resistors. The inductor is also mainly used to store energy in it, but they store energy by generating a magnetic field, while the capacitor is used to store energy by using static electricity. There are many types of inductors out there, some very simple and some very complex. However, metal coils are the most common and easily understood inductor you will encounter. The magnetic field that the coil may generate depends on the number of turns of the coil, so the greater the number of turns, the greater the inductance.
We often see inductors wound around cores of different shapes and sizes. The main purpose of the cores is to enhance the magnetic field as the current passes through the conductor. Therefore, the cores allow us to completely filter. Block specific signals. This is very useful for us because we can use it for many applications, including reducing interference to communication equipment and extending battery life.
The diode is one of the most important components in the circuit board. Its main purpose is to make the current flow only in the set direction. Current can flow from the positive terminal to the negative terminal and vice versa, but not simultaneously, so a diode can do this by providing infinite resistance in one direction and zero resistance in the other. Therefore, we can use this function to stop the current from flowing in an unwanted direction. One of the most popular diodes is LED diodes (commonly known as light-emitting diodes). We mainly use these diodes to emit light. However, we have to Orient them correctly or the LEDS may not light up.
6. The transformer
They are one of the most important components in a circuit board, and transformers are primarily used to transfer electrical energy from one device to another, increasing or decreasing it as we transmit it across multiple configurations. This increase or decrease is often observed in voltage. Experts often think of voltage conversion.. The transformer consists of a metal core, similar to what we see in ordinary inductors. There is always a series of coils around the metal core. There are at least two coils, one of which is used as the secondary coil and the other as the primary coil. The secondary coil is the configuration through which the electrical energy will pass.
We often see transformers on large electric poles, these transformers are called industrial transformers, which are used to reduce the voltage when passing through the line. This reduction is usually in the range of hundreds of thousands. Therefore, the voltage becomes available in our daily work and in ordinary homes through the use of transformers.
7. Silicon controlled rectifier
These are integral parts of a circuit board, which is why enthusiasts love to use them. We also call them thyristors because they are very similar to diodes and transistors. Some experts suggest that they are similar to two transistors and that they can work together.. They have four silicon layers and contain only three wires.. They are not used as amplifiers, they are only used as switches..
One of the main points to remember is that we only need a pulse to activate the switch, on the other hand, we have to constantly supply current to the transistor to pass through the amplification. Therefore, they are more suitable for a large number of switching power supplies.
It is well known that most electronics experts owe transistors to the basic building blocks of electrons, which are important components of circuit boards, and billions of transistors can be found within a single IC. However, we should not view them as complex tools. Instead, they are ordinary electrical switches and simple amplifiers. Transistors come in many shapes and sizes, but the most common type is the bipolar transistor. Other categories include PNP and NPN variants.
A bipolar transistor has three pins inside it. There’s a collector, there’s a publisher, and then it’s all important. According to the. When a small amount of current flows through an NPN transistor, it flows from the base to the emitter, but this triggers another setting where the current becomes even larger. This larger current then flows from the emitter to the collector.
PNP transistors, on the other hand, behave exactly the opposite of NPN transistors. There is another popular type of transistor, which we call the FET or field effect transistor.. They allow current to flow through them using the existing electric field to activate another circuit setup.
9. Crystal oscillator
These are the most important components of circuit boards in complex devices, and we use them mainly in clocks because they allow us to make critical circuits that allow us to maintain stable and accurate time. They include a piezoelectric body that generates periodic electronic signals, and that piezoelectric body is basically a crystalline material that generates signals as it oscillates, so we design them in such a way that they are vibrationally stable. Its vibrations are associating with a specific frequency, so we can use them to make inexpensive and accurate watches. Therefore, we also use them for other important devices, such as quartz watches and microcontrollers.
10. Integrated circuits
They are the key components of a circuit board, so when we shrink certain circuits and electronic components and then embing them in a semiconductor film, they calling integrated circuits. They allowed us to embed many electronic components into a single chip, and this amazing capacity allowed us to make the first calculators. As a result, they now enable us to produce state-of-the-art smart devices and revolutionary supercomputers. Integrated circuits act as the central processing unit, or essentially the brain of the larger circuit. Integrated circuits come in different types, but most are in black plastic cases.
11. Switches and relays
They are the most basic components on a circuit board, but we often forget how important they are: switches allow us to control the current in any given circuit; The switch allows us to move between closed and open. They come in all shapes and sizes.. However, some of the most common ones include sliders, levers, keys, buttons and swivels. Electronegative switches, on the other hand, are relays. Relays work through solenoids, so that solenoids act as temporary magnets when current flows through. Therefore, they are used as switches, so that a greater amount of current can be improved.
12. The sensor
Sensors are circuit board components that can detect changes in their atmosphere, and when they do, they tend to generate a signal that reflects that change. These electrical signals are then sent to different components on the circuit board, so sensors basically convert physical energy into electrical energy, so we often think of sensors as transducers (because of their ability to convert energy into another kind of energy).
There are different types of sensors and they all have different uses, some of the more popular sensors include temperature sensors, humidity sensors, pressure sensors, light sensors and motion sensors. They are so common that we use them a lot in our daily lives, for example, we use leds to detect infrared signals in TV remote controls. We also use fire and humidity sensors in fire and smoke alarms, so we can also use sensors as components of circuit boards to optimize different industrial processes.