How Does Circuit Boards Work

1.Circuit Board Introduction

The circuit boards is  PCB or FPC. The birth and development of FPC and PCB gave birth to a new product of soft and hard combination board. So  the combination of soft and hard board is the flexible circuit board. And hard circuit board through pressing and other processes. And in accordance with the relevant process requirements combined together to form a this with FPC characteristics and PCB characteristics.

2.Classification of circuit boards

According to the number of layers, the board can  divide into single panel, double panel, and multi-layer circuit board.

The first is a single panel. On a basic PCB, the parts  concentrate on one side and the wires  concentrate  on the other. Since the wire only appears on one side, the PCB  call a single-sided circuit board. Single panels are usually simple to make and inexpensive. But the downside is that it can’t apply to products that are too complex.

The double panel is an extension of the single panel. Double panels can meet the needs of electronic products. Both sides are copper-clad with wiring and can be used to conduct the wiring between the two layers through holes. The line enables the network connection.

A multilayer board is a printed board with more than three layers of conductive graphics that are interlinked as required. Multi-layer circuit board is the product of electronic information technology to high speed, multi-function, large capacity, small volume, thin, lightweight direction.
According to the characteristics of the circuit board is divided into soft board (FPC), hard board (PCB), soft and hard combined board (FPCB).

3.Circuit board structure

The  board mainly consists of a number of structures. For example, pads, through holes, mounting holes, wires, components, connectors, fillers, electrical boundaries, etc. The main functions of each component are as follows:

Pad: Metal hole used to weld pins of components.
Perforation: there are metal perforation and non-metal perforation, among which the metal perforation is used to connect the pins of components between layers.
Mounting hole: Used to fix the circuit board.Wire: Copper film of electrical network used to connect component pins.
Connectors: Components used to connect boards.
Filling: Used for copper coating of ground wire network, which can effectively reduce impedance.
Electrical boundary: Used to determine the dimension of the board beyond which all components on the board must not exceed this boundary.

4.How the board works

Circuit board working principle: the use of plate – based insulating material separated from the surface of copper foil conductive layer. And allows the current to flow through the components along a pre-designed route. Complete functions such as work, amplification, attenuation, modulation, demodulation, coding and so on.

On a basic PCB, the parts  concentrate on one side and the wires  concentrate on the other. Because the wires only appear on one side, the PCB  calle a single panel. A multilayer board has wires that must  properly connecte between the two layers. This bridge between circuits  call a guide hole (VIA). The basic circuit board design process can divide into the following four steps:
(1) Design of circuit schematic diagram. The design of circuit schematic diagram is mainly  use of ProtelDXP schematic editor to draw.
(2) Generate network report — network report is to display the circuit principle and the link relationship between the components of the report. It is the bridge and link between circuit schematic design and circuit board design. Through the network report of circuit schematic diagram, we can quickly find the connection between components, so as to provide convenience for PCB design.
(3) Design of printed circuit board — the design of printed circuit board  usually refer to as PCB design, which is the final form of circuit schematic diagram transformation. The related design of this part is more difficult than the design of circuit schematic diagram. But we can use ProtelDXP’s powerful design function to complete this part of the design.
(4) Generate printed circuit board reports — after the design of printed circuit board is complete, it is necessary to generate various reports. Such as the generation of pin reports, circuit board information reports, network status reports and so on, after printing printed circuit diagram.

5.How to analyze circuit board schematic

(1)First of all, we should be able to understand the symbols of various electronic components.  Mainly including capacitor, resistor, diode, transistor and so on.
(2) Secondly, we should be familiar with the functional characteristics of these commonly use electronic components, as well as the commonly use circuit functional modules
(3) Gradually record and familiarize yourself with various common circuit modules. For example , voltage module, display module and key module, which  commonly use in electronic products.
(4) Integrated chips or integrated modules are now being use more and more widely. These are special modules
(5) Some analog circuits are more complex and need to be mastere gradually.