What is pcb assembly

Did you know that almost every gadget, or electronic device you use in your daily life, that has a common basic building block? pcb assembly?

Almost any electronic device, including your PC, laptop, smartphone, game console, microwave, TV, dishwasher, etc., will not function properly without PCB assembly. So, what is PCB assembly?

Before understanding what is PCB assembly, let’s first understand what is PCB and what are the components on it.

  • What is PCB

1.Concept: PCB, the whole name is printed circuit board, it is an important electronic component, a support body for electronic components, and a carrier for electrical connection of electronic components. Because we make it for using electronic printing, we call it a “printed” circuit board.

2.Category: We divide it into three major categories: single-sided, double-sided, and multi-layer circuit boards.

①Single-sided, on the most basic PCB, we concentrate the parts on one side, and we concentrate the wires on the other side. Because the wires only appear on one side, we call this kind of PCB a single-sided circuit board. Single panel is usually simple to make and low cost, but the disadvantage is that it cannot apply to too complicated products.

②Double-sided is an extension of single-sided. When single-layer wiring cannot meet the needs of electronic products, we use double-sided. Both sides have copper cladding and traces, and we can conduct the lines between the two layers through vias to form the required network connections.

③Multilayer board refers to a printed board with three or more conductive pattern layers and insulating materials between them separated by lamination, and the conductive patterns are interconnected as required. Multilayer circuit board is the product of the development of electronic information technology in the direction of high speed, multi-function, large capacity, small volume, thinning and light weight. volume_up content_copy share.

  • Components on the PCB Board

Commonly used electronic components include resistors, capacitors, potentiometers, tubes (including diodes, triodes, etc.), inductors, radiators, connectors, electroacoustic devices, laser devices, electronic display devices, optoelectronic devices, sensors, power supplies, switches, relay, etc.

  • What is pcb assembly process

The connection methods of components and circuit boards are divided into patch and plug-in.

The most fundamental difference between the plug-in and the patch, that is the package and the difference in size: the plug-in has pins, and it needs to be installed on the PCB to open holes in the PCB and solder it through the PCB; the patch, as the name suggests, fits like a plaster, but it is also for tinning soldering, the contact surface between the PCB and the device is flat.

For some small-signal devices, such as resistors, ceramic capacitors, control chips, etc., the use of SMD is better than the plug-in, because the production process is easier to control, the process defect rate is low, and the price of some materials is better than the plug-in . But compared to the plug-in seismic capacity is poorer. But the overall patch will be better than the plug-in, and then for power devices, such as MOSFETs, electrolytic capacitors, and power resistors, the plug-in will be better than the patch. Because the power device generates serious heat, the heat dissipation of the plug-in is better than that of the patch.

Generally speaking, SMD process welding is reliable and stable, and the failure rate is low. Suitable for large area welding of stable electronic product models.

  • What tools are needed for pcb assembly

  1. Soldering iron

The main tool for hand soldering is the soldering iron. There are many types of electric soldering irons, including direct heating type, induction type, energy storage type and temperature regulation type.

The electric power is 15W, 2OW, 35w…300W, which is mainly determine by the size of the weldment. Generally, 2OW internal heating electric soldering iron is suitable for welding of general components. We can use can energy storage electric soldering iron when welding integrated circuits and vulnerable components. We also can use 150W~300W high-power external heating electric soldering iron for welding large welding parts.

The temperature of the soldering iron tip of a low-power electric soldering iron is generally between 300 and 400 °C. Copper material are generally make for soldering iron tips  . In order to protect the soldering iron tip from being oxidized and rusted . If it is under the high temperature conditions of welding, the soldering iron tip is often electroplated. And some soldering iron tips are also made of alloy materials that are not easily oxidized.

According to that we solder the type of components, it can select the appropriate shape of the soldering iron tip. The top shape of the tip of the soldering iron is conical, oblique oval and chisel. Small solder joints can be conical, and larger solder joints can be chisel or cylindrical. volume_up content_copy  share.

  1. Solder

Solder is the main material for welding. The solder used for soldering electronic components is actually a tin-lead alloy. The melting point temperature of solder with different tin-lead ratios is different, generally 180~230 ℃. Tubular solder wire is the most suitable for manual soldering. The solder wire is sandwiched with high-quality rosin and activator, which is very convenient to use.

The tubular solder wire has various specifications such as 0.5, 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, etc., which can  easily to select.  Flux is a material that can clean and protect the surface of the metal, after it heating,that can  weld . The metal surface in the air is easy to form an oxide film. It can prevent the wetting effect of the solder on the welding metal. It also can appropriate use of flux can remove the oxide film. Which can make the soldering quality more reliable and the solder joint surface smoother and rounder.